this page gives you the facts and simple uncluttered mechanisms for the nucleophilic addition reactions between carbonyl compounds (specifically aldehydes and ketones) and hydrogen cyanide hcn. if you want the mechanisms explained to you in detail there is a link at the bottom of the page
the reaction of aldehydes and ketones with hydrogen cyanide. hydrogen cyanide adds across the carbon-oxygen double bond in aldehydes and ketones to produce compounds known as hydroxynitriles. for example with ethanal (an aldehyde) you get 2-hydroxypropanenitrile: with propanone (a ketone) you get 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanenitrile:
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cyanide will preferentially leach sulfide minerals and will react with sulfur to produce thiocyanate. these reactions will also enhance the oxidation of reduced sulfur species increasing the requirement for lime addition to control the ph at a sufficient level to avoid the volatilization of hydrogen cyanide (hcn).
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the reaction isn't normally done using hydrogen cyanide itself because this is an extremely poisonous gas. instead the aldehyde or ketone is mixed with a solution of sodium or potassium cyanide in water to which a little sulphuric acid has been added.
hydrogen cyanide hcn or chn cid 768 - structure chemical names physical and chemical properties classification patents literature biological activities
the researchers show that hydrogen-cyanide and water can react to produce the forerunners of rna and proteins. the reaction does not need metal catalysts or lots of energy as previous studies show. these findings show us the potential ways life could form.
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